Key components of energy efficient lighting are phosphors containing rare earths, which enable fluorescent lamps to use approximately 75% less power to produce the same amount of light as a standard incandescent light bulb. According to the former US President, Bill Clinton, the energy savings that could be achieved if every home swapped their incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs would reduce greenhouse emissions In the US by up to 50%.
LED-based lighting technology is a growing competitor of the rare earth fluorescent lamps, because it provides a longer life and better energy efficiency. However, as LED optical characteristics (mono direction emissions) require light diffusion systems, rare earth fluorescent lamps remain the technology of choice especially for ambient professional lighting.
Catalytic cracking has emerged as the most widely used petroleum refining process in the world today with 10.6 MMBPD processed daily. Two major factors that have increased the need for cracking are the depletion of old, light crudes and the increasing demand for gasoline. A typical barrel of crude is approximately 20% straight run gasoline, but demand is nearly 50% per barrel. This demonstrates the need for an efficient catalytic cracking unit to increase gasoline production, through breaking high molecular weight hydrocarbons into smaller pieces of lower boiling point fractions.
In a modern refinery, 25% of the crude oil goes through the FCC unit.
Better yields of high-octane gasoline are obtained in today's FCC units using a high activity zeolite-based catalyst held in a matrix of amorphous silica-alumina. Lanthanum is used to improve the thermal stability of the catalyst (by maintaining a high surface area when operating temperature increases), in a range of 2 to 4wt%. During normal operations, increasing reaction temperature, catalyst/oil ratio, catalyst activity, and contact time will yield a higher conversion of feedstock.
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